A participle is used as an adjective and ends various ways. A present participle always ends with ing as does the gerund, but remember that it is an adjective. A past participle ends with ed, n, or irregularly. Examples: played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen. Participles modify nouns and pronouns and can precede or follow the word modified. (Do not confuse participles that end in ing with gerunds. Participles are used as adjectives; gerunds are used as nouns.)
A participial phrase is made up of a participle and any complements (direct objects, predicate nominatives, predicate adjectives, or modifiers) like the gerund. A participial phrase that comes at the beginning of the sentence is always followed by a comma and modifies the subject of the sentence.
Participial phrases sometimes appear to modify a word that they cannot logically modify. The word it should modify does not appear in the sentence.
Instructions: Rewrite the following sentences by rearranging the words or by adding a word or words to make them clear and logical.
1. Looking over the outlook, the canyon seemed magnificent.
2. Typing my research paper, the keys jammed.
3. Playing the piano, my dog started to howl.
4. Eating lunch, the doorbell rang.
5. Having walked several miles, my new shoes hurt.
--For answers scroll down.
1. Looking over the outlook, I saw a magnificent canyon.
2. Typing my research paper, I jammed the keys.
3. Playing the piano, I caused my dog to start to howl.
4. Eating lunch, she heard the doorbell ring.
5. Having walked several miles, I had sore feet from my new shoes.
(You must add a word to be the subject.)
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from Daily Grammar Lessons Blog